THE FEAST OF PENTECOST
The Historical Understanding of Pentecost
In the third month after the Jews left Egypt, they arrived in the Sinai
desert and camped opposite Mount Sinai. Moses was then told by God to
gather the Israelites together to receive the Commandments (Exodus
19:1-8). The Israelites answered, "All that the Lord has spoken, we
Then Moses gave the Jews two days to cleanse themselves, wash their
clothes, and prepare to receive these commandments on the third day. At
the same time, Moses told them not to come too near Mount Sinai. From
early morning, dense clouds covered the peak of the mountain. Thunder
and lightning were frequently seen and heard. The sound of the ram's
horm came very strong, and the top of the mountain was enveloped in fire
and smoke. The Israelites at the foot of Mount Sinai stood in great awe
(Exodus 19:9-19). Moses then went up alone on the mountain, and as he
neared the top, a mighty voice announced the Ten Commandments (Exodus
The Feast of Pentecost can be found in Leviticus 23:15-21.
vs.15--And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the sabbath,
from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the wave offering; seven
sabbaths shall be complete:
vs.16--Even unto the morrow after the seventh sabbath shall ye number
fifty days; and ye shall offer a new meal offering unto the Lord.
vs.17--Ye shall bring out of your habitations two wave loaves of two
tenth deals: they shall be of fine flour; they shall be baken with
leaven; they are the firstfruits unto the Lord.
vs.21--And ye shall proclaim on the selfsame day, that it may be an
convocation unto you: ye shall do no servile work therein: it shall be a
statute for ever in all your dwellings throughout your generations.
The period called "the omer" begins the day following the weekly sabbath
during Passover and continues until Pentecost. The Lord commanded that
seven weeks be counted from the time of the offering of the omer.
Because of this ritual of counting, the period between Passover and
Pentecost came to be known as the omer. In fact, Pentecost does not
have a fixed calendar date in the Bible, but rather falls on the day
after the completion of the omer count--that is, the fiftieth day after
the omer offering is brought. Therefore, Pentecost is seen as the
conclusion to the Passover season.
Because Pentecost culminates with the counting of the omer for 50 days
(which should be done the day following the weekly sabbath during
Passover), Pentecost is called the conclusion to Passover. Spiritually
speaking, the believers in the Lord Jesus are on a journey out of Egypt
(a type of the world's system and its evil ways) in the wilderness (of
life), awaiting our time to meet God face to face on Mount Sinai (Exodus
3:12). There at Mount Sinai (spiritually), God will forever reveal
Himself to us in a new and greater way. For all believers in Christ,
the Commands that were given at Mount Sinai represents the Word of God,
the entire Bible. The believer in Christ spiritually experiences
Pentecost when the Holy Spirit of God reveals the Word of God to him in
a deeper and more powerful way, and his understanding and desire for the
Bible increases accordingly.
THE THEMES OF PENTECOST
A New Revelation
One theme of Pentecost is a new revelation of God's will (Leviticus
23:15-16,21). Two notable historical events happened on this day.
1. The giving of the Ten Commandments
Israel came to Mount Sinai on the third day of the third month (Exodus
19:1). The Lord visited the people three days later (Exodus 19:10-17).
Therefore, the commandments were given by God in the third month of the
biblical religious calendar, which is the month of Sivan, on the sixth
day of this month. This is exactly 50 days from the crossing of the Red
2. The giving of the Holy Spirit by God
Jesus was resurrected on the Feast of First Fruits, as was seen in the
previous study. Fifty days after the resurrection of Jesus, the Holy
Spirit came to dwell in the hearts and lives of all the believers in
Him. God chose the first Pentecost after Jesus Christ's resurrection to
pour out the Holy Spirit on 120 believers (Acts 1:15, 2:1-4). These
astounding events demonstrated the presence of the Holy Spirit.
Observe the following comparisons to Pentecost, the fiftieth day and
events we just read-
Commandments of God written on
Commandments of God written on
tablets of stone (Exodus 24:12) our hearts (Jeremiah 31:33,
Psalm 40:8, Ezekial 11:19-20,
36:22-27 and Hebrews 8:10)
Written by the finger of God
Written by the Spirit of God
(Exodus 31:18) (2 Corinthians 3:3,Hebrews 8:10)
3,000 slain (Exodus 32:1-8,26-28) 3,000 live (Acts 2:38,41)
The letter of the Law (Exodus 24:12) The Spirit of
the Law (Romans
7:6, 2 Corinthians 3:6)
Mount Sinai (Exodus 19:11)
Mount Zion (1 Peter 2:6)
PENTECOST AS A MARRAIGE: A BETROTHAL CONTRACT
One of the most beautiful images of Pentecost is that of the marriage
between God (the groom) and Israel (the bride).
The biblical wedding service that God gave marraige consisted of two
stages. The first stage is betrothal. You enter this first stage of
marraige as soon as a betrothal contract is made between the two
parties. During betrothal, you are legally married, but do not
physically dwell with your mate. Betrothal is so legally binding that
you cannot get out of it without a divorce. The word for betrothal in
Hebrew, 'erusin', comes from the Hebrew verb 'aras'. Aras is related to
the Hebrew word 'asar', which means "to bind". By this, we can see that
betrothal is legally binding.
In the New Testament, we can see that Joseph was betrothed to Mary when
the angel Gabriel announced to Mary that she would have a son named
Jesus, by the Holy Spirit of God, who would be the Messiah (Luke
1:26-35). When Joseph discovered that his betrothed wife Mary was
pregnant, he decided to get a divorce until the angel of the Lord
changed his mind by appearing to him in a dream (Matthew 1:18-20).
Betrothal is also mentioned in Exodus 21:8 and Deuteronomy 20:7 and
22:23,24. The second stage of marraige is the fullness or consummation
of the marraige.
In Exodus 19, when God by the leading of Moses brought the children
Israel to Mount Sinai, God betrothed Himself to Israel. On Mount Sinai,
God gave the Commandments to Israel. At this time, God was making a
betrothal contract with Israel. The written betrothal contract
represents "The book of the covenant" (marraige is a convenant) that
Moses wrote prior to the revelation at Mount Sinai (Exodus 24:4,7). The
Book of the Covenant spelled out mutual obligations of God and Israel
just as the betrothal contract spelled out the obligations between
husband and wife. So, God made a marriage contract with Israel in
In Exodus 19:8, Israel accepts God's marraige proposal. Israel answered
"All that the Lord hath spoken we will do."
THE SPIRITUAL UNDERSTANDING
What does the wedding mean in terms of the Messiah, and what is the
personal application to us? Jesus is the groom and the believers in Him
are the bride. When Jesus came to the earth almost 2,000 years ago, He
came so that whosoever would put their trust and confidence in Him would
be wedded to Him forever. This would include both Jews and non-Jews
(John 3:16). Because Jesus came as the suffering Messiah during His
first coming, He ascended to Heaven to be with God the Father until He
returns during His second coming to be the King Messiah. Today, Christ
does not physically dwell with those who trust in Him. Therefore, the
believers in Jesus are currently spiritually betrothed to Him. We will
enter the full marriage and physically dwell with Him during the
Messianic age known as the Millennium. However, before we can
physically dwell with the Lord during this time on earth, the wedding
ceremony when the believers in Christ will be wedded to Him must take
place. This will take place at the beginning of the tribulation period.
In the biblical wedding service that God gave, after you are married,
you have a honeymoon. The honeymoon lasts a week. Seven days equals a
week. In Hebrew, a week means a seven. It can mean seven days or seven
years (Daniel 9:24-27, Genesis 29:27). In Joel 2:16, we see the
marriage of the bride (the believers in Christ) and the bridegroom
(Jesus) where the bridegroom is going forth from the chamber and the
bride out of her closet. The word closet is the Hebrew word 'chupah',
and the chupah here refers to Heaven where the previously raptured
believers in the Messiah have been enjoying a seven-year honeymoon with
Him while the earth was experiencing the tribulation. After the
seven-year honeymoon, Jesus will be returning with His bride to attend
the marriage supper (Revelation 19:7-14). Then we will rule and reign
with Him physically during the Messianic age known as the Millennium
THE POURING OUT OF GOD'S HOLY SPIRIT
In Exodus 19:19, a trumpet was sounded. The trumpet that was sounded
grew louder and louder. "And when the voice of the trumpet sounded
long, and waxed louder and louder, Moses spake, and God answered him by
a voice." "And all the people saw the thunderings..." (Exodus 20:18)
In a commentary by R. Johanan, he says,
When God gave the Commandments on Sinai He displayed untold marvels to
Israel with His voice. What happened? God spoke and the voice
reverberated throughout the whole world..."And all the people saw the
thunderings." God's voice, as it was uttered split up into seventy
voices, in seventy languages, so that all the nations should understand.
In Deuteronomy 32:8 we read, "When the most High divided to the nations
their inheritance, when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds
of the people according to the number of the children of Israel. In
Exodus 1:1-5, we can see that the number of the children of Israel who
came to Egypt was 70. Therefore, the 70 voices as interpreted by R.
Johanan represented all the nations of the world, based upon Deuteronomy
32:8 and Exodus 1:1-5. So, it was seen that God's voice split up into
the languages of all the people on the earth to be a witness to them.
This same experience that happened at Mount Sinai also occurred 50 days
after the resurrection of Christ on the day of Pentecost almost 2,000
years ago. This experience is also described in Acts 2:1-11 and Hebrews
12:18-19. In describing what happened in Exodus 20:18, Hebrews 12:18-19
says, "For ye are not come unto the mount that might be touched, and
that burned with fire, nor unto blackness, and darkness, and tempest,
and the sound of a trumpet, and the voice of words; which voice they
that heard intreated that the word should not be spoken to them any
more." The word 'words' in Hebrews 12:19 is the Greek word 'rhema',
which means "an individual word." In this passage in Hebrews, we can
see the same thing that happened at Mount Sinai in the first Pentecost
is exactly what did happen as seen in Hebrews 12:19. It is also what
happened during the first Pentecost following the resurrection of the
Lord. At this Pentecost, the people also were as one. When God poured
out His Holy Spirit at this time, once again people began to speak in
the different languages of the world (Acts 2:1-11). Therefore, we can
see that the Pentecost at Mount Sinai was a rehearsal of the Pentecost
that would occur immediately after the resurrection of Jesus.
THE FIRST TRUMP OF GOD
Once again in Exodus 19:19, a trumpet was sounded. This trumpet
louder and louder. The Jewish understand this to be the first trump of
God. The trumpet blown by God at Mount Sinai was understood to be the
first of the two ram's horns that were present on Mount Moriah during
Abraham's sacrifice of Isaac in Genesis 22.
The Jewish people understood that there are three primary trumpets that
mark major events in the redemptive plan of God. These three trumpets
are known as the first trump, the last trump, and the great trumpet.
Jesus referred to this event which happened to Abraham in John 8:56
where He says, "Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day: and he saw
it, and was glad." What did Abraham see? What took place on Mount
Moriah? Abraham was instructed by God to take Isaac to Mount Moriah and
sacrifice him there (Genesis 22:2). The first and second temples were
built in Jerusalem on Mount Moriah (2 Chronicles 3:1). It was in
Jerusalem on Mount Moriah where our Lord was crucified on the cross.
Calvary (Golgotha) was located on Mount Moriah. Abraham in Genesis 22:4
was looking into the future and seeing that God was going to offer up
the Messiah to be slain on Mount Moriah at a future time.
God called Abraham to sacrifice Isaac and offer him as a burnt offering
(Genesis 22:2-3,6,8,13). A burnt offering is an offering that is
totally consumed. It is freely given and done freely, willingly, and
joyfully by both parties involved. The Bible tells us that God freely
offered up Jesus joyfully and that Jesus was willing and obedient to His
death on the cross (Philippians 2:8). In Isaiah 53:10, it says that it
pleased God to offer up Jesus.
When Abraham offered up Isaac, Abraham believed that God would raise
Isaac from the dead (Hebrews 11:17-19). Abraham went willingly,
joyfully, and obediently because he believed God would raise Isaac from
the dead. This can be seen in Genesis 22:5. In this, we can see that
Abraham was a type and picture of God the Father, and Isaac was a type
and picture of Jesus, the Messiah. In Genesis 22:8, Abraham said to
Isaac that God would provide a lamb; Jesus was the lamb that God offered
to us (John 1:29).
This story is an example of the Hebrew expression, "Here now, but not
yet." Abraham offered up his only son (Genesis 22:16, Hebrews 11:17,
and God offered up His only Son, Jesus (John 3:16). Instead of Isaac,
Abraham offered up a ram as the ram was found caught in the thicket
(Genesis 22:13). In the Hebrew writings, the ram represents the Messiah
and the thicket stands for the sins of the people. In Genesis 22:13
where it says "behind him", the Hebrew word is 'achar', which means
afterward or in the future. Therefore, the imagery presented here is
that Abraham saw this ram being sacrificed in the future. This is what
Jesus was referring to in John 8:56.
Once again, relating to the story in Genesis 22, the left horn of the
ram that was caught in the thicket (Genesis 22:13) is called the first
trump and the right horn of the ram is called the last trump.
THE THREE TUMPETS OF GOD
The three great trumpets that mark major events in the redemptive plan
of God are associated with days in the biblical calendar. The first
trump is associated with and was blown by God on the Feast of Pentecost
when God gave the Ten Commandments to the Jewish people at Mount Sinai
The last trump is associated with and is blown on Rosh HaShanah.
will be discussed in the next study. The biblical name for Rosh
HaShanah is Yom Teruah, which in Hebrew means "the day of the awakening
blast." This trump is mentioned by the apostle Paul in 1 Corinthians
15:51-53. Because the last trump is only blown on Rosh HaShanah and
because the apostle Paul specifically mentions that the rapture of the
believers in Christ will take place at the last trump, Paul was giving a
clear understanding that the rapture of the believers in Christ will
happen on a Rosh HaShanah.
The great trump is associated with and is blown on Yom Kippur.
said that He would return at His second coming at the sound of the great
trump (Matthew 24:30-31). Because the great trump is only blown on Yom
Kippur (The Day of Atonement) and because Jesus said that He would
return with the sound of a great trump, Jesus was stating very clearly
that He would return on a Yom Kippur. This too will be discussed in
more detail in a further study. Thus, the first and last trump will
relate to the ram's horn in Genesis 22. Again, the first trump will be
the left horn of the ram and the last trump will be the right horn of
the ram. In Exodus 19:19, the trumpet that was blown by God will be the
THE SPIRITUAL UNDERSTANDING OF PENTECOST
As we have seen, the Feasts were given by God as a shadow of things
come (Hebrews 10:1) to teach us (Galatians 3:24) about Jesus Christ and
the redemptive work of God (Colossians 2:16-17). Pentecost was the
birth of the congregation in the wilderness (Acts 7:38). The things
given at Mount Sinai were divine and from God, but shown in a physical
way (Hebrews 9:1) to enable us to understand the spiritual truth that
God wanted to communicate to us (1 Peter 2:5-9). So God gave Israel the
covenant, the law, the services, the oracles of God, and the promises,
which were divine (Hebrews 9:1), at Mount Sinai to teach us about the
Messiah (Psalm 40:7). With this in mind, let's look at the spiritual
understandings that God was communicating to us at Pentecost.
-Two Leavened Wave Loaves -Leviticus 23:15-17
This was to be a new meal offering to the Lord (vs. 16). There
be two wave loaves baked with leaven (vs.17). At Passover, leaven was
absolutely forbidden (Exodus 12:15,19-20) and in the regular meal
offering, no leaven was permitted (Leviticus 2:1,4-5,11). We saw
earlier that leaven represents sin (1 Corinthians 5:6-8, Galatians 5:9).
The Feasts of Passover and Unleavened Bread spoke of the death and
burial of Jesus who was without sin. Yet on Pentecost, God commanded
just the opposite. Why?
Pentecost speaks of the birth of Israel as a nation, as well as the
birth of the congregation of believers in Christ through the Holy
Spirit. The two loaves speak of Israel and the congregaton of believers
in Christ. Even though both Israel and the congregation of believers in
Christ are chosen by God and are holy to Him, sin is still found in
Israel and sin still exists in the congregation of believers. The
Feasts of Passover and Unleavened Bread speak primarily of Jesus who is
without sin, but Pentecost speaks of Israel and the congregation of
believers where sin still exists.
The two loaves speak of Israel and the believers in Christ. The
two in the Bible is the number of witness and testimony. For example,
two witnesses in the Bible establishes a truth (Matthew 18:19-20,
Deuteronomy 19:15). The Ten Commandments were written on two stones
(Exodus 31:18). Also, the Ten Commandments are fulfilled by obeying two
commandments (Matthew 22:34-40). Christ and His congregation of
believers testify of the love, grace, and plan of God for the whole
The meal offering was to be an offering burned by fire upon the altar.
A work of the Holy Spirit is an immersion (baptism) of fire (Luke 3:15).
Fire is what God uses to burn sin out of the lives of a beliver in Jesus
(1 Corinthians 3:13-15, 1 Peter 1:7). The followers of Christ are
supposed to live a righteous life before God (Ephesians 4:17-32, 5:1-13,
Colossians 3:1-13, Romans 8:1-4).
-Two-Tenths Ephod of Fine Flour -Leviticus 23:17
The grinding and crushing of wheat produces fine flour. The fine
speaks of the refining process that our faith goes through as we are
conformed to the image of Christ and enter into His trial, testing,
temptations, and sufferings (Romans 5:3-5, 8:29, 1 Peter 4:12-19).
Jesus was the wheat that was planted into the ground (John 12:24, 1
Corinthians 15:35-38,42-44). As wheat is beaten and refined to become
fine flour, so our Lord Jesus was beaten and bruised as He became that
fine flour (Isaiah 53:1-6).
-Holy To The Lord For The Priest -Leviticus 23:20
Even though the two wave loaves were leavened, the Lord counted them
holy unto Himself for the priest. As mentioned earlier, the two wave
loaves that the priest waved represented both Israel and the
congregation of believers in Christ. Both the Jewish believers in
Christ, represented by Israel, and the non-Jewish believers, represented
by the congregation, consist of individuals who are leaven. We still
sin before God despite being believers in the Lord. In spite of this
sin, because we are believers in Jesus and seek to serve and love Him
with all our hearts, we are considered holy before God (Deuteronomy
14:2, Luke 1:68,72-75, Colossians 1:22-24, 1 Thessalonians 4:7, Titus
2:12, and 1 Peter 1:15-16).
-A Statute Forever -Leviticus 23:21
The Holy Spirit came to dwell with the believer in Jesus (John
-The Feast Of Harvest Of First Fruits - Exodus 23:16,34:22, Numbers
Israel was called a land of barley and wheat (Deuteronomy 8:7-8).
spring wheat and barley harvest preceded the major harvest in the fall,
the Feast of Ingathering (Exodus 23:16, 34:22). Both the spring and the
fall harvest were dependent upon the rains coming at the right time.
The fall rains are called the early rain. The spring rains are called
the latter rain. The early rain is spoken of in Deuteronomy 11:10-15,
and Joel 2:23. The rain is prophetic of the outpouring of the Holy
Spirit upon people's lives individually as they accept Jesus into their
lives and allow the Holy Spirit to teach and instruct them concerning
the ways of God. The early rain and the latter rain also teach us about
the pouring out of God's Holy Spirit in a corporate way upon all flesh.
The early rain refers to the outpouring of the Holy Spirit during
Christ's first coming and the latter rain refers to the outpouring of
the Holy Spirit during Christ's second coming.
As we are seeing, the harvest speaks of the salvation of people.
spring harvest was the beginning of the harvest of people who would come
to receive Jesus as Lord with the greatest harvest being at the end of
this age (Matthew 13:39, 9:37-38). The fall harvest or the harvest at
the end of this present age is in the seventh month on the biblical
religious calendar. Pentecost is in the third month. From Pentecost
there are four months until the final harvest in the fall (John
4:34-35). The fall harvest is the fruit harvest.
God said that the coming of Christ would be like the former and latter
rain on the earth (Hosea 6:1-3, Joel 2:23). James ties the coming of
the Lord to the early and latter rain (James 5:7). Christ's death,
burial, and resurrection was in the spring of the year; the outpouring
of the Holy Spirit after the resurrection of Jesus was in the spring of
the year; and all those who believed were first fruits of the entire
harvest and were a part of the spring harvest. Jesus second coming will
be in the fall of the year and the greatest number of believers will
believe at this time. Jesus spoke about this great harvest at the end
of this present age in Matthew 24:13-14.
-A Harvest Of Freewill Offerings And Rejoicing -Deuteronomy
As believers, when we come before God we are to give of ourselves,
including our time, talents, and money, and present them before Him with
a joyful heart (Acts 4:32-37).
We have seen how the spring festivals are applicable in three
dimensions. They are historic to the nation of Israel, they are
fulfilled in the Messiah, and they describe how the individual believer
is to walk and live his life before God. In other words, we can see
that God has a plan for every individual to willingly come to Him. So
the spring festivals were not only historic, but they were also our type
and example (1 Corinthians 10:1-2,6, 11).
To natural Israel, Passover was their freedom from the bondage of Egypt.
Unleavened Bread was the separation from the land of Egypt into the
immersion (baptism) into the Red Sea and the Cloud in the wilderness.
Finally, God led the people to Mount Sinai where they experienced
Pentecost and God revealed Himself to the people in a deeper and greater
way than He ever did previously.
The spring festivals were fulfilled by Jesus, who was our Passover Lamb,
and died on the day of Passover. He was without sin and is the Bread of
Life. Jesus was in the sepulcher on the day of Unleavened Bread and He
was the kernel of wheat that was buried in the earth. Jesus arose as
First Fruits of the barley harvest, He Himself being the first of those
to rise from the dead and received a resurrected body. Finally, the
Holy Spirit was poured out upon all flesh during the Feast of Pentecost
to gather all believers in the Lord to be God's spring harvest in the
Pentecost serves as an annual reminder that our Creator still works
miracles, granting His Spirit to the firstfruits of His spiritual
harvest, empowering them to carry out His work in this world.
The Feasts of the Lord--Part VI
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